atom: The essential unit of a chemical aspect. Atoms are made up of a dense nucleus that comprises positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons. The nucleus is orbited by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
blubber: The thick layer of fats underneath a marine mammal’s pores and skin that helps it keep heat even in chilly waters. Prior to now, whalers would boil whale blubber to extract oil, which had many industrial makes use of.
bond: (in chemistry) A semi-permanent attachment between atoms — or teams of atoms — in a molecule. It’s fashioned by a lovely pressure between the taking part atoms. As soon as bonded, the atoms will work as a unit. To separate the part atoms, vitality should be equipped to the molecule as warmth or another sort of radiation.
calorie: The quantity of vitality wanted to lift the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 diploma Celsius. It’s sometimes used as a measurement of the vitality contained in some outlined quantity of meals. The exception: when referring to the vitality in meals, the conference is to name a kilocalorie, or 1,000 of those energy, a “calorie.” Right here, a meals calorie is the quantity of vitality wanted to lift 1 kilogram of water 1 diploma C.
carbohydrates: Any of a giant group of compounds occurring in meals and residing tissues, together with sugars, starch and cellulose. They include hydrogen and oxygen in the identical ratio as water (2:1) and sometimes might be damaged down in an animal’s physique to launch vitality.
carbon: A chemical aspect that’s the bodily foundation of all life on Earth. Carbon exists freely as graphite and diamond. It is a vital a part of coal, limestone and petroleum, and is able to self-bonding, chemically, to type an infinite variety of chemically, biologically and commercially necessary molecules.
cell: (in biology) The smallest structural and useful unit of an organism. Sometimes too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall. Relying on their dimension, animals are made from anyplace from 1000’s to trillions of cells.
chemical bonds: Engaging forces between atoms which are robust sufficient to make the linked components operate as a single unit. A few of the enticing forces are weak, some are very robust. All bonds seem to hyperlink atoms via a sharing of — or an try to share — electrons.
chemistry: The sector of science that offers with the composition, construction and properties of gear and the way they work together. Scientists use this data to check unfamiliar substances, to breed massive portions of helpful substances or to design and create new and helpful substances. (about compounds) Chemistry is also used as a time period to confer with the recipe of a compound, the way in which it’s produced or a few of its properties. Individuals who work on this discipline are often known as chemists.
ldl cholesterol: A fatty materials in animals that varieties part of cell partitions. In vertebrate animals, it travels via the blood in little vessels often known as lipoproteins. Extreme ranges within the blood can sign dangers to blood vessels and coronary heart.
local weather: The climate circumstances that sometimes exist in a single space, normally, or over a protracted interval.
crude oil: Petroleum within the type because it comes out of the bottom.
dissolve: To show a strong right into a liquid and disperse it into that beginning liquid. (As an example, sugar or salt crystals, that are solids, will dissolve into water. Now the crystals are gone and the answer is a completely dispersed mixture of the liquid type of the sugar or salt in water.)
double bond: A kind of bond between two atoms inside a molecule. In a single bond, atoms share two electrons. In a double bond, they share 4. This bond is barely much less steady than a single bond.
aspect: A constructing block of some bigger construction. (in chemistry) Every of a couple of hundred substances for which the smallest unit of every is a single atom. Examples embody hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, lithium and uranium.
setting: The sum of all the issues that exist round some organism or the method and the situation these issues create. Surroundings might confer with the climate and ecosystem wherein some animal lives, or, maybe, the temperature and humidity (and even the placement of issues within the neighborhood of an merchandise of curiosity).
fatty acid: A big molecule made from up chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked collectively. Fatty acids are chemical constructing blocks of fat in meals and the physique.
forage: To seek for one thing, particularly meals. It’s additionally a time period for the meals eaten by grazing animals, corresponding to cattle and horses.
glycerol: A colorless, odorless and sticky or syrupy member of the alcohol household. It’s current in lots of meals and can be utilized as a solvent and as an antifreezing agent. It’s chemical formulation is C3H8O3 (or CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH).
host: (v.) The act of offering a house or setting for one thing.
hydrocarbon: Any of a variety of enormous molecules containing chemically sure carbon and hydrogen atoms. Crude oil, for instance, is a naturally occurring mixture of many hydrocarbons.
hydrogen: The lightest aspect within the universe. As a fuel, it’s colorless, odorless and extremely flammable. It’s an integral a part of many fuels, fat and chemical compounds that make up residing tissues. It’s made from a single proton (which serves as its nucleus) orbited by a single electron.
hydrophobic: Repelling (or not absorbing) water.
lipid: The time period for a household of fatty compounds, from ldl cholesterol and wax to triglycerides. The 4 massive classes embody triglycerides, waxes, steroids and phospholipids.
molecule: An electrically impartial group of atoms that represents the smallest potential quantity of a chemical compound. Molecules might be made from single forms of atoms or of various varieties. For instance, the oxygen within the air is made from two oxygen atoms (O2), however water is made from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).
nucleic acids: The genetic materials of all life on Earth. It’s normally discovered within the type of DNA and RNA.
natural: (in chemistry) An adjective that signifies one thing is carbon-containing; additionally a time period that pertains to the fundamental chemical compounds that make up residing organisms. (in agriculture) Farm merchandise grown with out using non-natural and doubtlessly poisonous chemical compounds, corresponding to pesticides.
oxygen: A fuel that makes up about 21 p.c of Earth’s ambiance. All animals and lots of microorganisms want oxygen to gasoline their progress (and metabolism).
penguin: A flightless black-and-white fowl native to the far Southern Hemisphere, particularly Antarctica and its close by islands.
protein: A compound created from a number of lengthy chains of amino acids. Proteins are a vital a part of all residing organisms. They type the idea of residing cells, muscle and tissues; additionally they do the work inside cells.
regulate: (n. regulation) To regulate with actions. Governments write guidelines and rules — legal guidelines — which are enforced by police and the courts.
saturated fats: A fats molecule created from chains of carbon atoms, the place every carbon has no less than two hydrogen atoms connected to it (these on the ends have three). These chains haven’t any double bonds. Saturated fat are present in animal fat (corresponding to butter and lard), in addition to in vegetable fat (corresponding to coconut oil). Their lengthy, straight chains enable them to change into strong at room temperature.
sea: An ocean (or area that’s a part of an ocean). In contrast to lakes and streams, seawater — or ocean water — is salty.
triglyceride: The primary ingredient in lots of animal fat and oils. A excessive degree of triglycerides within the blood places an individual in danger for coronary heart illness or stroke.
unsaturated fats: A fats molecule made from chains of bonded carbon atoms, the place no less than one bond is a double or triple covalent bond. These bonds substitute some hydrogen atoms, which ends up in the molecule not being fully saturated with hydrogen. Unsaturated fat are a sort prevalent in vegetable fat corresponding to canola, olive and corn oil. Their double bonds create kinks within the molecules. These kinks usually hold the fat liquid at room temperature.
whale: A standard, however pretty imprecise, time period for a category of enormous mammals that lives within the ocean. This group contains dolphins and porpoises.