Scientists Say: Inorganic | Science Information for College students

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atom: The fundamental unit of a chemical aspect. Atoms are made up of a dense nucleus that incorporates positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons. The nucleus is orbited by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.

bond: (in chemistry) A semi-permanent attachment between atoms — or teams of atoms — in a molecule. It’s shaped by a pretty pressure between the taking part atoms. As soon as bonded, the atoms will work as a unit. To separate the element atoms, power should be equipped to the molecule as warmth or another kind of radiation.

carbon: A chemical aspect that’s the bodily foundation of all life on Earth. Carbon exists freely as graphite and diamond. It is a crucial a part of coal, limestone and petroleum, and is able to self-bonding, chemically, to kind an unlimited variety of chemically, biologically and commercially vital molecules. (in local weather research) The time period carbon generally will probably be used virtually interchangeably with carbon dioxide to connote the potential impacts that some motion, product, coverage or course of could have on long-term atmospheric warming.

carbon dioxide: (or CO2) A colorless, odorless gasoline produced by all animals when the oxygen they inhale reacts with the carbon-rich meals that they’ve eaten. Carbon dioxide is also launched when natural matter burns (together with fossil fuels like oil or gasoline). Carbon dioxide acts as a greenhouse gasoline, trapping warmth in Earth’s environment. Crops convert carbon dioxide into oxygen throughout photosynthesis, the method they use to make their very own meals.

chemistry: The sector of science that offers with the composition, construction and properties of drugs and the way they work together. Scientists use this data to check unfamiliar substances, to breed giant portions of helpful substances or to design and create new and helpful substances. (about compounds) Chemistry is also used as a time period to discuss with the recipe of a compound, the way in which it’s produced or a few of its properties. Individuals who work on this discipline are often called chemists. (in social science) A time period for the flexibility of individuals to cooperate, get alongside and luxuriate in one another’s firm.

compound: (typically used as a synonym for chemical) A compound is a substance shaped when two or extra chemical components unite (bond) in mounted proportions. For instance, water is a compound fabricated from two hydrogen atoms bonded to at least one oxygen atom. Its chemical image is H2O.

laptop chip: (additionally built-in circuit) The pc element that processes and shops data.

diamond: One of many hardest identified substances and rarest gems on Earth. Diamonds kind deep throughout the planet when carbon is compressed below extremely sturdy strain.

DNA: (quick for deoxyribonucleic acid) An extended, double-stranded and spiral-shaped molecule inside most dwelling cells that carries genetic directions. It’s constructed on a spine of phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon atoms. In all dwelling issues, from vegetation and animals to microbes, these directions inform cells which molecules to make.

fats: A pure oily or greasy substance occurring in vegetation and in animal our bodies, particularly when deposited as a layer below the pores and skin or round sure organs. Fats’s main position is as an power reserve. Fats additionally is an important nutrient, although it may be dangerous if consumed in extreme quantities.

graphene: A superthin, superstrong materials constructed from a single-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms which are linked collectively.

hydrogen: The lightest aspect within the universe. As a gasoline, it’s colorless, odorless and extremely flammable. It’s an integral a part of many fuels, fat and chemical substances that make up dwelling tissues. It’s fabricated from a single proton (which serves as its nucleus) orbited by a single electron.

inorganic: An adjective for some chemical substance that doesn’t include carbon from dwelling organisms.

metallic: One thing that conducts electrical energy nicely, tends to be shiny (reflective) and is malleable (that means it may be reshaped with warmth and never an excessive amount of pressure or strain).

mineral: Crystal-forming substances that make up rock, comparable to quartz, apatite or varied carbonates. Most rocks include a number of completely different minerals mish-mashed collectively. A mineral often is strong and steady at room temperatures and has a selected components, or recipe (with atoms occurring in sure proportions) and a selected crystalline construction (that means that its atoms are organized in common three-dimensional patterns). (in physiology) The identical chemical substances which are wanted by the physique to make and feed tissues to keep up well being.

molecule: An electrically impartial group of atoms that represents the smallest potential quantity of a chemical compound. Molecules might be fabricated from single kinds of atoms or of various sorts. For instance, the oxygen within the air is fabricated from two oxygen atoms (O2), however water is fabricated from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).

natural: (in chemistry) An adjective that signifies one thing is carbon-containing; additionally a time period that pertains to the essential chemical substances that make up dwelling organisms. (in agriculture) Farm merchandise grown with out using non-natural and doubtlessly poisonous chemical substances, comparable to pesticides.

oxide: A compound made by combining a number of components with oxygen. Rust is an oxide; so is water.

prime: (in chemistry and engineering) Make prepared or put together to be used or motion.

protein: A compound constructed from a number of lengthy chains of amino acids. Proteins are an important a part of all dwelling organisms. They kind the premise of dwelling cells, muscle and tissues; in addition they do the work within cells. Among the many better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (additionally in blood) that try to battle infections. Medicines ceaselessly work by latching onto proteins.

salt: A compound made by combining an acid with a base (in a response that additionally creates water). The ocean incorporates many various salts — collectively known as “sea salt.” Frequent desk salt is a fabricated from sodium and chlorine.

silicon: A nonmetal, semiconducting aspect utilized in making digital circuits. Pure silicon exists in a shiny, dark-gray crystalline kind and as a shapeless powder.

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